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موضوع: THE ARIANS

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    THE ARIANS

    THE ARIANS
    Aryanor Indo-European is the general name given to the people thought to beoriginated from the steppe of central and southern Asia. Around4000-3000 BC., these people started to emigrate to the warmer places inthe south or west. Most scholars think of this as the beginning of thedistinction between Indo-European tribes. Tribes who emigrated to thewest became the ancestors of Germans, Slavs, Greeks, Latins, andprobably Celts. People who chose the south as their destination came tobe known as Indo-Iranians. There are also a rather small group ofpeople who most likely chose not to participate in this greatmigration. These later entered the pages of history as Scythians andSamarians, although they are also believed to be nomadic Indo-Iranianssince their language and customs are closely tide to the AncientPersians.

    There are scholarly arguments going on for a long timeabout the truth of the theory of Indo-Europeans, whether this migrationreally happened or not, and whether these people are in fact related.Reasons presented to support this theory are based on language andcultural evidence. Linguistic studies suggest close similaritiesbetween the ancient forms of modern Indo-European languages, in theirgrammar and in their vocabulary structure. Many words still in use arealike, and many others are the changed forms of similar ancient forms.Cultural background also provide basis for this theory, horse breeding,similar agricultural methods, strong fighting abilities, similarreligious beliefs and mythological superstitions seem to suggest thatall this started from a common background, probably from a time whenall these people were the same. Today, the most wide spread theoryspecifies the people of Europe (with the exceptions of Estonians,Finns, and Magyars), Iran, and Indian subcontinent to belong to acommon, Indo-European background. Until a strong argument provesotherwise, we shall undertake this theory as the closest thing to thetruth.


    [برای مشاهده لینک ها شما باید عضو سایت باشید برای عضویت در سایت بر روی اینجا کلیک بکنید]
    "An Iranian King"
    4000-3000 BC is the approximate datefor the migration of Indo-Iranian tribes from their Central Asiansettlement, however, recent Archaeological, and Anthropologicaldiscoveries in Central Asia seem to provide information leading us tobelieve that this date could have been later, closer to 2500 or 2000 BC.

    TheIndo-Iranian settlement known as Iran-Vij to the Iranologists, based onthe term Aerianem-Vaejou in Avesta, is a half mythical place whoselocation is an object of controversies. Opinions vary from NorthernCaucasus to the western shore of Lake Aral (Kharazm) and the Oxusriver. In Avesta and Veda, this place is described as "Heart of Cold"and supposedly the capital of the last common Indo-Iranian king. Thisking-hero, Yima (Yama in Sanskrit, Jamm in Modern Persian) was thesource of all technology, and expander of the land. In one of thestories in Avesta, Yima realized that Iran-Vij is no longer big enoughto hold all his people, so he decided to expand his land. He shoved hissword into the earth three times, and made it expand, respectively 1/3,2/3, and 3/3, during a period of three 600 winters (Each winter being ayear, since Iran Vij had only two seasons, Winter and Summer). This canbe seen as a metaphor for the further Indo-Iranian migrations which ledthem into the Iranian Plateau and later on into India.

    Indo-Iraniansthemselves were later divided into two major sections, Indians andIranians. Indians continued their way further into the Dakan (NorthernIndia), were stopped by local Dravidians, and settled there. They mixedup with the people, kept their own religion, and became present dayIndians. Iranians, on the other hand, were themselves divided intothree major tribes with each having its own sub-tribes. These tribesand range of their initial domination in the Iranian Plateau were:


    · Maad (Medians): Central and North-Western parts.
    · Paars (Persians): In South and South-Western parts.
    · Parthav (Parthians): North-Eastern and Eastern parts.


    Thesetribes started their career in Iran as the hired warriors for the localchiefs, many archaeological discoveries such as Syalk suggest this.Since they knew the secret to horse riding and had Iron weapons, thesewarriors were able to put a stop on the constant invasion of villagesby foreign powers, namely Sumerians and Babylonians. As the time wentby, these mercenaries occupied the position of their superiors, andsince they would reproduce faster than the local inhabitants, they soontook over the whole land. They also fought with some of the locals tosubmit them, these wars are reflected on the ancient mythologiestalking about Iranians fighting the evil Deevs, huge stature creatureswho hated Iranians. There is a theory going on that these Deevs couldhave been the ancient inhabitants, mainly the kadusis who lived behindthe Alborz Mountains, who were defending their homes from the invading,horse riding foreigners.

    When they finally took over most of theplateau, Iranian tribes started organizing their domains as they havebeen doing in their original homeland. Small villages, headed by localmayors, and each independent of each other with almost no unity. Thismethod soon proved useless, especially under the constant attack of newmasters of Mesopotamia, Assyrians. Slowly, the Iranian tribesre-organized themselves into kingdoms, and then empires. The first ofthese kingdoms was Medes.

    from:
    [برای مشاهده لینک ها شما باید عضو سایت باشید برای عضویت در سایت بر روی اینجا کلیک بکنید]


    _________________

  2. #2
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    Re: THE ARIANS

    IRAN BEFORE IRANIANS

    TheElamite civilization in Iran, first developed in the Susian plain,under the influence of nearby Sumeria and Mesopotamia in theTigris-Euphrates valley.

    Around3500 B.C., animal drawn wheeled carts were in use in Sumeria. They alsoused ploughs to till their land, and oars to propel their ships on theEuphrates river. The Sumerians were the most advanced and complexcivilization in the world at that time, and by 3100 B.C. they hadinvented a system of writing which was the first of its kind in theworld.

    In 3000 B.C. a group of people called the Akkadiansdrifted into the northern Sumerian territory. The Akkadians adoptedsome aspects of Sumerian culture and for that reason, the region issometimes referred to as Sumer-Akkad. Around 2340 B.C. Sargon, ruler ofthe Akkad defeated Sumer and went on to conquer Elam and themountainous lands to the east. His empire spread from the MediterraneanSea to the Caspian Sea in the north, and the Persian Gulf in the South.


    [برای مشاهده لینک ها شما باید عضو سایت باشید برای عضویت در سایت بر روی اینجا کلیک بکنید]
    "Hanging Gardens of Babylon"

    TheGuti, among other tribes living in the mountainous areas controlledmany of the routes that crossed western Iran. They took advantage ofperiods of weakness in Babylonian power and, around 2200 B.C., evensucceeded in invading Babylon, causing the fall of the empire of Akkad.

    This fall allowed Elam to capture Susa, a city that was tobecome one of its capitals. Elam developed into a civilization thatcould be compared with that of Sumer, and during the 13th and 12thcenturies B.C., at the height of its glory, it succeeded in defeatingAssyria and Babylon.

    Throughout the centuries that followed,the Assyrian Empire continued to fight for control of the region, attimes succeeding with great force. They waged war with deliberatefrightfulness, sacking cities, and killing their inhabitantsindiscriminately. By 900 B.C. Assyria was busy restoring its controlover Babylonia, and by 700 B.C. the Assyrian Empire included the entireTigris-Euphrates region, and all the Eastern Shore of theMediterranean. It was the most powerful empire the world had yet seen.

    TheIndo-European Aryans or Iranians arrived on the plateau during thesecond millennium BC, and it is at Tappeh Sialk that the remains oftheir most ancient dwellings have been found. The rich had jewels madeof silver, and the poor of bronze or iron. Vast finds of pottery atTappeh Sialk give us an insight into their art.

    The mostrepresentative type, a long spouted pitcher used in funeral rituals,was decorated with the head of an animal. The artist accentuated theresemblance of the animal by drawing around the spout. For example, ifhe wanted to increase the resemblance of a bird, the artist drew aseries of triangles suggesting a collar of feathers or a pair of wings
    ].


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